The Network of Christian Apologetics

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The Alpha and the Omega is a name by which Jesus Christ referred to Himself.  Specifically, it references His eternality.  "'Look, He is coming with the clouds,' and 'every eye will see Him, even those who pierced Him;' and all peoples on earth 'will mourn because of him.'  So shall it be! Amen.  'I am the Alpha and the Omega,' says the Lord God, 'who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty'" (Revelation 1:7-8).

"He said to me: 'It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End.  To the thirsty I will give water without cost from the spring of the water of life.  Those who are victorious will inherit all this, and I will be their God and they will be my children'" (Revelation 21:6-7).  "Look, I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to each person according to what they have done.  I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.  "He who testifies to these things says, 'Yes, I am coming soon.'  Amen. Come, Lord Jesus" (Revelation 22:12-13; 20).


The word "Apostle" (literally; someone sent on a mission) is used in the Bible to refer to the twelve disciples of Jesus; and to the Apostle Paul (who replaced Judas)."He  appointed  twelve  that   they might be  with Him and that He might send them out to preach and to have authority to drive out demons.  These are the twelve He appointed: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter),  James son of Zebedee and his brother John (to them he gave the name 'Boanerges,' which means 'Sons of Thunder'),  Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot  and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him" (Mark 3:14-19).  "Paul, an Apostle -- sent not from men nor by a man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead" (Galatians 1:1).

"Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and strangers, but fellow citizens with God’s people and also members of His household, built on the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstone" (Ephesians 2:19-20)."The wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them were the names of the twelve Apostles of the Lamb" (Revelation 21:14).


The Ark of the Covenant was a small, portable, gold-covered chest into which was placed the stone tablets on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed.  "Then put in the Ark the tablets of the   covenant law,  which I will give you" (Exodus 25:16).  "He took the tablets of the covenant law and placed them in the Ark" (Exodus 40:20).


The Ark was a symbol of God's covenant with the Jews -- His chosen people.  "Then the LORD said to Moses, 'Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel. (Exodus 34:27).

It was carried, throughout their forty years of wandering in the desert, whenever they entered into a battle, "So Joshua son of Nun called the priests and said to them, 'Take up the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD and have seven priests carry trumpets in front of it.'  And he ordered the army, 'Advance! March around the city, with an armed guard going ahead  of   the   Ark   of  the  LORD'"  (Joshua 6:6-7).

"After three days the officers went throughout the camp, giving orders to the people: “When you see the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD your God, and the Levitical Priests carrying it, you are to move out from your positions and follow it" (Joshua 3:2-3).


And, ultimately it was placed in the Temple.  "In the four hundred and eightieth year after the Israelites came out of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, the second month, he began to build the Temple of the LORD" (1 Kings 6:1).  "The LORD has kept the promise he made: I have succeeded David my father and now I sit on the throne of Israel, just as the LORD promised, and I have built the Temple for the Name of the LORD, the God of Israel.  I have provided a place there for the Ark, in which is the covenant of the LORD that he made with our ancestors when He brought  them  out of Egypt" (1 Kings 8:20-22).



Being baptized with water is the first act of obedience for a person that has put their faith in Jesus Christ.  Paul described Baptism as being a symbolic sharing in Christ's death and resurrection.  "Having been buried with Him in baptism, in which you were also raised with Him through your faith in the working of God, who raised Him from the dead" (Colossians 2:12).  "We were therefore buried with him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life" (Romans 6:4).


The Bible is a compilation of sixty-six books, written by 40 different writers, in three different languages, on three different continents, over a time span of roughly  sixteen hundred years.  The Bible was inspired by the Holy Spirit, making the original documents free from error.  The Bible is divided into two compilations of Scripture, the Old Testament and the New Testament. 

The Old Testament represents Scripture written before the time of Christ, while the New Testament is Scripture written after the time of Christ.


1.  The Pentateuch:   containing the  books  of   Genesis,   Exodus, Leviticus,   Numbers, and   Deuteronomy.

2.  The Historical Books:  being  Joshua, Judges, Ruth,  1 Samuel,  2 Samuel,  1 Kings,   2  Kings,  1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. 

3.  The Poetical Books:  identified as; Job, Psalms, Proverbs,  Ecclesiastes,   and  The  Song   of  Solomon.

4. The Prophetical Books: classified as originating with either a Major Prophet or a Minor Prophet -- include, respectively, the Major Prophets:  Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, and Daniel,  and the Minor Prophets: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah,  Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.


1.  The Historical Books:  being the Gospels of Matthew, Mark,   Luke,   and  John;  and    The  Acts  of   the   Apostles.

2.  The Letters of Paul:  including, Romans,   1 Corinthians, 2  Corinthians,   Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians.  1 Timothy, 2 Timothy,  Titus,    and   Philemon.

3.  And Other Letters:   listed as,  Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2    Peter,   1 John,   2 John,  3 John,  Jude,   and  Revelation.



The canon -- a word that literally means "standard" or "rule" --  is a list of literary works, of various genres, that have been inspired by God, and are thus considered authoritative.  Judaism identifies the thirty-nine books of the Old Testament as being the canon of Scripture.  While Christians add the twenty-seven books of the New Testament as well.


Communion is a ceremonial ordinance of the Christian Church.  It is done in obedience to the Jesus' instruction, to, "Do this is remembrance of me."  "And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, 'This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.'  In the same way, after the supper He took the cup, saying, 'This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you'" (Luke 22:19-22).



Christian Apologetics is an act of obedience to 1 Peter 3:15"But in your hearts set apart Christ as Lord.  Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you  to give  the  reason  for the  hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect" (1 Peter 3:15). 

"Dear friends, although I was very eager to write to you about the salvation we share, I felt I had to write and urge you to contend for the faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints" (Jude 3).  "Preach the Word; be prepared in season and out of season; correct, rebuke and encourage -- with great patience and careful instruction" (2 Timothy 4:2).  "Be wise in the way you act toward outsiders; make the most of every opportunity.  Let your conversation be always full of grace, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how to answer everyone" (Colossians 4;5-6).


"Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a workman who does not need to be ashamed and who correctly handles the word of truth" (2 Timothy 2:15).  "All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, so that the man of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work" (2 Timothy 3:16-17).  "Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God's will is -- His good, pleasing and perfect will" (Romans 12:2).


"In the Beginning God Created the Heavens and the Earth" (Genesis 1:1).  "The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands.  Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they reveal knowledge" (Psalm 19:1-2).  "For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities -- His eternal power and divine nature -- have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse” (Romans 1:20).





No understanding of Christianity can fail to acknowledge Jesus Christ as being, literally, God in Human flesh -- both fully God and fully human.    "In  your relationships  with  one  another,   have  the  same mind-set  as  Christ  Jesus:  Who,  being  in  very   nature  God,  did  not  consider  equality  with  God  something to be used to his own advantage; rather, He made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness.  And being found in  appearance as a man, He humbled himself by becoming obedient to death -- even death on a cross!"  (Philippians 2:5-8).

"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God" (John 1:1).  "The Word became flesh and made His dwelling among us.    We have seen His glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth"  (John 1:14). 


"In the past God spoke to our forefathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways, but in these last days He has spoken to us through His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, and through whom He made the universe.  The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of His being, sustaining all things by His powerful word.  After He had provided purification for sins He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in Heaven" (Hebrews 1:1-3).  "But about the Son, He (God the Father) says, "Your throne, O God,  will  last  forever  and  ever,  and  righteousness will be the scepter of Your kingdom" (Hebrews1:8).

"This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins" (1 John 4:10).   Because  of  His  great  love  for  us,  Christ   was  willing  to  take  on an additional human nature -- without divesting Himself of His divine nature -- and to be obedient to God by providing the supreme sacrifice for the sins of the world.


"God said to Moses, 'I AM who I AM, this is what you are to say to the Israelites.  I AM has sent me to You'" (Exodus 3:14).  "'I tell you the truth,' Jesus answered, 'before Abraham was born, I AM!'" (John 8:58).  "But Jesus remained silent and gave no answer.  Again the high priest asked him, 'Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?'  'I AM,' said Jesus" (Mark 14:61-62).





"For God so loved the world that he gave His one and only Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life" (John 3:16).  "For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord" (Romans 6:23).  "Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God’s wrath remains on them" (John 3:36).



Evil is disobedience to God; a departure from God's original plan. "Everyone who does evil hates the light, and will not come into the light for fear that their deeds will be exposed" (John 3:20)."He went on: 'What comes out of a person is what defiles them. For it is from within, out of a person’s heart, that evil thoughts come -- sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, greed, malice, deceit, lewdness, envy, slander, arrogance and folly.  All these evils come from inside and defile a person'" (Mark 7:20-23).

"So I find this law at work: Although I want to do good, evil is right there with me" (Romans 7:21).  "The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and will bring me safely to His Heavenly kingdom" (Timothy 4:18). 



"Consequently, faith comes from hearing the message, and the message is  heard  through  the word  about Christ" (Romans 10:17).  "So the law   was our guardian until Christ came that we  might be  justified  by  faith" (Galatians 3:24).

"For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith -- and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God" (Ephesians 2:8). 
"Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see.  And without faith it is impossible to please God, because anyone who comes to Him must believe that He exists and that He rewards those who earnestly seek Him" (Hebrews 11:1;6).


"All the prophets testify about him that everyone who believes in him receives forgiveness of sins through his name” (Acts 10:43).    "For He has rescued us from the dominion of darkness and brought us into the kingdom of the Son He loves, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins" (Colossians 1:13-15).  "In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins, in accordance with the riches of God’s grace" (Ephesians 1:7).




The Gospel is the good news of salvation given through faith in the atoning sacrifice of the Lord Jesus Christ."For in the Gospel the righteousness of God is revealed -- a righteousness that is by faith from first to last, just as it is written: 'The righteous will live by faith'" (Romans 1:17). 

"The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the Gospel that displays the glory of Christ, who is the image of God" (2 Corinthians 4:4).  "But it has now been revealed through the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who has destroyed death and has brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel" (2 Timothy 1:10).


The Gospel Creed is a summary of the essential beliefs of Christianity.  In the oral culture of the time, it was typically memorized, and repeated verbally.  "Now, brothers, I want to remind you of the Gospel I  preached to you, which you received and on which you have taken your stand.  By this Gospel you are saved, If you hold firmly to the word I preached to you. Otherwise, you have believed in vain.  For what I received, I passed on to you as of first importance, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that He was buried, that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that He appeared to Peter, and then to the twelve.  After that, He appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers at the same time, most of whom are still living through some have fallen asleep.  Then he appeared to James, then to all the Apostles, and last of all He appeared to me also as one abnormally born" (1 Corinthians 15:1-8).


How close to the actual event -- the resurrection of Jesus Christ -- can this creed be dated?  We know that Paul wrote 1 Corinthians between A.D. 55 - 57.   He indicates in 1 Corinthians 15:1-4 that he has already passed on this creed to the church at Corinth -- which would mean it must predate his visit there in A.D. 51. Therefore, the creed was in circulation within twenty years of the Resurrection.

However, there are many scholars who trace this creed back to three years after Paul's conversion, when he traveled to Jerusalem to meet with Peter and James, (Galatians 1:18-19).  In order for Peter and James to have given this creed to Paul  during his visit, it must have been developed soon after the resurrection.  Thus, we have both an early and accurate creed going back to the very dawn of Christianity.



Grace is defined as the unmerited favor of God.  "But because of His great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions -- it is by grace you have been saved.  And God raised us up with Christ and seated us with Him in the Heavenly realms in Christ Jesus" (Ephesians 2:4-6).  "And all are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus" (Romans 3:24).  "In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins, in accordance with the riches of God’s grace" (Ephesians 1:7).




"Even now my witness is in Heaven; my advocate is on high" (Job 16:19).  "He was taken up before their very eyes, and a cloud hid Him from their sight.  They were looking intently up into the sky as He was going, when suddenly two men dressed in white stood beside them. 'Men of Galilee,' they said, 'why do you stand here looking into the sky?  This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into Heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into Heaven'"  (Acts 1:9-10).

"But store up for yourselves treasures in Heaven, where moths and vermin do not destroy, and where thieves do not break in and steal" (Matthew 6:20).  "'LORD Almighty, the God of Israel, enthroned between the cherubim, you alone are God over all the kingdoms of the Earth.  You have made Heaven and Earth'" (Isaiah 37:16).


"But I will show you whom you should fear: Fear Him who, after your body has been killed, has authority to throw you into Hell.  Yes, I tell you, fear Him"(Luke 12:5). 
"I am the Living One; I was dead, and now look, I am alive forever and ever!  And I hold the keys of death and Hades" (Revelation 1:18).


"The time came when the beggar died and the angels carried him to Abraham’s side.  The rich man also died and was buried.  In Hades, where he was in torment, he looked  up  and  saw  Abraham  far away, with Lazarus by his side.  So he called to him,‘Father Abraham, have pity on me and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, because I am in agony in this fire'" (Luke 16:22-24).

"And you, Capernaum, will you be lifted to the heavens?  No, you will go down to Hades. For if the miracles that were performed in you had been performed in Sodom, it would have remained to this day" (Matthew 11:23).



Hermeneutics  (Biblical Hermeneutics)  is  defined  as  the  art  and  and  science  of  Biblical   interpretation.



The word Holy can be rightly applied only to God.  To say that God is Holy, is to say that He is both perfect in power, and perfect in love.  "Christ  loved  the   church  and  gave  Himself  up  for  her to make her holy,  cleansing her by the washing with water through the word, and to present her to Himself as a radiant church, without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish, but Holy and blameless" (Ephesians 5:25-27).

"Who will not fear you, Lord, and bring glory to your name?  For you alone are Holy.  All nations will come and worship before you, for your righteous acts have been revealed" (Revelation 15:4). 
"To whom will you compare me?  Or who is my equal?” says the Holy One" (Isaiah 40:25).


"Above Him were seraphim, each with six wings.  With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they were flying.  And they were calling to one another:  'Holy, Holy, Holy is the LORD Almighty; the whole earth is full of His glory'" (Isaiah 6:2-3).  "Each of the four living creatures had six wings and was covered with eyes all around, even under its wings.  Day and night they never stop saying: “‘Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord God Almighty,’ who was, and is, and is to come" (Revelation 4:8).




"Do not make any idols" (Exodus 34:17). 
"I hate those who cling to worthless idols; as for me, I trust in the LORD" (Psalm 31:6).

"'Present your case,' says the LORD.  'Set forth your arguments,' says Jacob’s King.  ''Tell us, you idols, what is going to happen.  Tell us what the former things were, so that we may consider them and know their final outcome.  Or declare to us the things to come, tell us what the future holds, so we may know that you are gods.  Do something, whether good or bad, so that we will be dismayed and filled with fear.  But you are less than nothing and your works are utterly worthless; whoever chooses you is detestable'" (Isaiah 41:21-24).

"When you cry out for help, let your collection of idols save you!  The wind will carry all of them off, a mere breath will blow them away. But whoever takes refuge in Me will inherit the land and possess my Holy Mountain" (Isaiah 57:13).


The tribes of Israel were appointed by God to be His chosen people.  "You made your people Israel your very own forever, and you, LORD, have become their God" (1 Chronicles 17:22).  "Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is One" (Deuteronomy 6:4).  "'Now then,' said Joshua, 'throw away the foreign gods that are among you and yield your hearts to the LORD, the God of Israel'" (Joshua 24:23).

Through them salvation was expressed to the Gentiles and to the whole world.  "This mystery is that through the Gospel the Gentiles are heirs together with Israel, members together of one body, and sharers together in the promise in Christ Jesus" (Ephesians 3:6).




Jerusalem is one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in human history.  It is located in the Judean Mountains, between the Mediterranean Sea and the northern edge of the Dead Sea.  The city of Jerusalem is considered central to three major world religions:  Judaism, Christianity, and Islam -- all of whom trace their lineage to Abraham.


Jerusalem has been uniquely important to the world since King David established it as the capital city of the United Kingdom of Israel (1,000 BC)  and his  son  Solomon  subsequently  built  the  first  Jewish Temple there on Mount Mariah (often called the Temple Mount).

"I intend, therefore, to build a Temple for the Name of the LORD my God, as the LORD told my father David, when He said, 'Your son whom I will put on the throne in your place will build the Temple for my Name'" (1 Kings 5:5). 
"They ministered with music before the tabernacle, the tent of meeting, until Solomon built the Temple of the LORD in Jerusalem. They performed their duties according to the regulations laid down for them" (1 Chronicles 6:32).


"Every year Jesus’ parents went to Jerusalem for the Festival of the Passover" (Luke 2:41).  "As He approached Jerusalem and saw the city, he wept over it" (Luke 19:41).  "The next day the great crowd that had come for the festival heard that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem.  They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting, 'Hosanna!'  'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!'  'Blessed is the king of Israel!'" (John 12:12-13).


"On one occasion, while He was eating with them, He gave them this command: 'Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about.  For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit' (Acts 1:4-5).


"I saw the Holy City, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride beautifully dressed for her husband" (Revelation 21:2).


The Lord Jesus Christ, in His role as our advocate and High Priest, "justifies" Christians through His sacrifice for our sins on the cross.  "Scripture foresaw that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, and announced the Gospel in advance to Abraham: “All nations will be blessed through you" (Galatians 3:8).  "For we maintain that a person is justified by faith apart from the works of the Law" (Romans 3:28).  "Clearly no one who relies on the Law is justified before God, because 'the righteous will live by faith'" (Galatians 3:11).





"God, the blessed and only Ruler, the King of kings and Lord of lords, who alone is immortal and who lives in unapproachable light, whom no one has seen or can see.  To Him be honor and might forever. Amen" (1 Timothy 6:15-16).  "They will wage war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will triumph over them because he is Lord of lords and King of kings -- and with Him will be His called, chosen and faithful followers" (Revelation 17:14).  "On His robe and on His thigh He has this name written: King of Kings and Lord of Lords" (Revelation 19:16).



"All inhabitants of the Earth will worship the beast -- all whose names have not been written in the Lamb’s Book of Life" (Revelation 13:8). 
"I did not see a Temple in the city, because the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its Temple.  The city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light, and the Lamb is its lamp.  The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the Earth will bring their splendor into it.  On no day will its gates ever be shut, for there will be no night there.  The glory and honor of the nations will be brought into it. Nothing impure will ever enter it, nor will anyone who does what is shameful or deceitful, but only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life" (Revelation 21:22-27).


"The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, 'Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away  the  sin  of  the world!'" (John 1:29). 
"For Christ, our  Passover  Lamb,  has  been  sacrificed" (1 Corinthians 5:7).

"For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your ancestors, but with the precious blood of Christ, a Lamb without blemish or defect.  He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake" (1 Peter 18-20).



"On the first day of the Festival of Unleavened Bread, the disciples came to Jesus and asked, 'Where do you want us to make preparations for you to eat the Passover?'  He replied, 'Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, "The Teacher says: My appointed time is near. I am going to celebrate the Passover with my disciples at your house.'"  So the disciples did as Jesus had directed them and prepared the Passover


When evening came, Jesus was reclining at the table with the Twelve.   And while they were eating, he said, 'Truly I tell you, one of you will betray me.'   They were very sad and began to say to him one after the other, 'Surely you don’t mean me, Lord?'   Jesus replied, 'The one who has dipped his hand  into the bowl with me will betray me.  The Son of Man will go just as it is written about Him.  But woe to that man who betrays the Son of Man!   It would be better for him if he had not been born.'  Then Judas, the one who would betray him, said, 'Surely you don’t mean me, Rabbi?'  Jesus answered, 'You have said so.' 


While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, He broke it and gave it to His disciples, saying, 'Take and eat; this is my body.'  Then He took a cup, and when He had given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, 'Drink from it, all of you.  This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins'" (Matthew 26:17-28).


"And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, 'This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.'  In the same way, after the supper He took the cup, saying, 'This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you'" (Luke 22:19-22).



Levi  was the third son of Jacob and Leah.  The Levites were a tribe of Israel comprised of Levi's descendants.  As a tribe, they were set apart by God to serve as Priests in the Tent of Worship (The Tabernacle) and later in the Temple.

"Appoint the Levites to be in charge of the tabernacle of the covenant law -- over all its furnishings and everything belonging to it.  They are to carry the tabernacle and all its furnishings; they are to take care of it and encamp around it" (
Numbers 1:50).  "Those from every tribe of Israel who set their hearts on seeking the LORD, the God of Israel, followed the Levites to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices to the LORD, the God of their ancestors" (2 Chronicles 11:16).


"'Be careful not to practice your righteousness in front of others to be seen by them.  If you do, you will have no reward from your Father in Heaven.  So when you give to the needy, do not announce it with trumpets, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and on the streets, to be honored by others.  Truly I tell you, they have received their reward in full.  But when you give to the needy, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, so that your giving may be in secret. Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you. 


And when you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the street corners to be seen by others.  Truly I tell you, they have received their reward in full.  But when you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father, who is unseen.  Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you.  And when you pray, do not keep on babbling like pagans, for they think they will be heard because of their many words.  Do not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him.


This, then, is how you should pray:  "Our Father in Heaven, hallowed be Your Name, Your kingdom come, Your will be done, on Earth as it is in Heaven.  Give us today our daily bread.  And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors.  And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one"'" (Matthew 6:1-13).



"If I speak in the tongues of men or of angels, but do not have love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal.  If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing.  If I give all I possess to the poor and give over my body to hardship that I may boast, but do not have love, I gain nothing.


Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud.  It does not dishonor others, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs.  Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth.  It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres.

Love never fails.  But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away.  For we know in part and we prophesy in part, but when completeness comes, what is in part disappears. 


When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child.  When I became a man, I put the ways of childhood behind me.  For now we see only a reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known.  And now these three remain: faith, hope and love.  But the greatest of these is love" (1 Corinthians 13:1-13).




"Today  in  the  town  of  David  a  Savior  has  been  born  to   you;   He   is  the  Messiah,   the Lord" 
(Luke 2:11).  "But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God,and that by believing you may have life in His name" (John 20:31).


"But God has helped me to this very day; so I stand here and testify to small and great alike. I am saying nothing beyond what the Prophets and Moses said would happen -- that the Messiah would suffer and, as the first to rise from the dead, would bring the message of light to his own people and to the Gentiles” (Acts 26:22-23).

"The seventh angel sounded his trumpet, and there were loud voices in Heaven, which said: 'The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Messiah, and He will reign forever and ever'” (Revelation 11:15). 
"Then I heard a loud voice in Heaven say: “Now have come the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of His Messiah.  For the accuser of our brothers and sisters, who accuses them before our God day and night, has been hurled down" (Revelation 12:10).



"And I saw an angel coming down out of Heaven, having the key to the Abyss and holding in his hand a great chain.  He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil, or Satan, and bound him for a thousand years.  He threw him into the Abyss, and locked and sealed it over him, to keep him from deceiving the nations anymore until the thousand years were ended.  After that, he must be set free for a short time.


I saw thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge.  And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony about Jesus and because of the Word of God.   They had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands.  They came to life and reigned with Christ a thousand years.  (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended.) 

This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy are those who share in the first resurrection.  The second death has no power over them, but they will be Priests of God and of Christ and will reign with him for a thousand years" (Revelation 20:1-5).





Nazareth is identified in the New Testament as the childhood home of Jesus.  "The crowds answered, 'This is Jesus, the prophet from Nazareth in Galilee'" (Matthew 21:11).  "Philip found Nathanael and told him, 'We have found the one Moses wrote about  in the Law, and about whom the prophets also wrote -- Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph'" (John 1:45).  "'Who are you, Lord?' I asked.  'I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom you are persecuting,’ He replied" (Acts 22:8).


The New Testament is Scripture written after the time of Christ. 


1.  The Historical Books, being the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; and The Acts of the Apostles.

2.  The Letters of Paul; including, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians. 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, and Philemon.

3.   And Other Letters; listed as,  Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, and Revelation.




"The nations you will dispossess listen to those who practice sorcery or   divination.  But as for  you, the  LORD  your   God  has  not  permitted  you  to  do  so"
(Deuteronomy 18:14).    "When  you  enter the land the LORD your God is giving you, do not learn to imitate the detestable ways of the nations there.  Let no one be found among you who sacrifices their son or daughter in the fire, who practices divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft" (Deuteronomy 18:9-10).  "'Do not turn to   mediums  or  seek out   spiritists,  for  you  will  be  defiled  by  them.  I am  the  LORD  your  God" (Leviticus 19:31).

Speaking of Manasseh -- the King of Judah -- the book of 2 Chronicles records, "he built altars to all the starry hosts.  He sacrificed his children in the fire in the Valley of Ben Hinnom, practiced divination and witchcraft, sought omens, and consulted mediums and spiritists.  He did much evil in the eyes of the LORD, arousing his anger" (2 Chronicles 33:5-6).

"When someone tells you to consult mediums and spiritists, who whisper and mutter, should not a people inquire of their God?  Why consult the dead on behalf of the living?" (Isaiah 8:19).  "I will destroy your witchcraft and you will no longer cast spells" (Micah 5:12).


The Old Testament represents Scripture written before the time of Christ.


1.  The Pentateuch;  containing the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

2. The Historical Books; being Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2  Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther.

3.  The Poetical Books; identified as; Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and The Song of Solomon.


The Olivet Discourse is a record of Jesus' description of the end times. It can be found in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke"'Teacher,' they asked, 'when will these things happen?  And what will bet he sign that they are about to take place?'  He replied: 'Watch out that you are not deceived.  For many will come in my name, claiming, "I am He," and, "The time is near."  Do not follow them. 


When you hear of wars and uprisings, do not be frightened.  These things must happen first, but the end will not come right away.'  Then he said to them: 'Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom.  There will be great earthquakes, famines and pestilences in various places, and fearful events and great signs from Heaven.


When you see Jerusalem being surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near.  Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, let those in the city get out, and let those in the country not enter the city.  For this is the time of punishment in fulfillment of all that has been written.


There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars.  On the Earth, nations will be in anguish and perplexity at the roaring and tossing of the sea.  People will faint from terror, apprehensive of what is coming on the world, for the heavenly bodies will be shaken.  At that time they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.  When these things begin to take place, stand up and lift up your heads, because your redemption is drawing near'" (Luke 21:7-11; 20-22; 25-28).





"As they approached Jerusalem and came to Bethphage on the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples, saying to them, 'Go to the village ahead of you, and at once you will find a donkey tied there, with her colt by her. Untie them and bring them to me.  If anyone says anything to you, say that the Lord needs them, and he will send them right away.'   This took place to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet: 'Say to Daughter Zion, "See, your King comes to you, gentle and riding on a donkey, and on a colt, the foal of a donkey (Zechariah 9:9).'"  The disciples went and did as Jesus had instructed them.  They brought the donkey and the colt and placed their cloaks on them for Jesus to sit on" (Matthew 21:1-7).

"The next day the great crowd that had come for the festival heard that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem.  They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting, 'Hosanna!'  'Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!'  'Blessed is the King of Israel!'" (John 12:12-13).



"Israel must slaughter them (sacrificial lambs) at twilight.  Then they are to take some of the blood and put it on the sides and tops of the door frames of the houses where they eat the lambs.  That same night they are to eat the meat roasted over the fire, along with bitter herbs, and bread made without yeast.  Do not eat the meat raw or boiled in water, but roast it over a fire -- with the head, legs and internal organs.  Do not leave any of it till morning; if some is left till morning, you must burn it.   This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak  tucked  into  your  belt,  your  sandals  on  your  feet and your staff in your hand.  Eat it in haste; it is the LORD’s Passover.  'On that same night I will pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn of both people and animals, and I will bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt.  I am the LORD.  The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, and when I see the blood, I will pass over you.  No destructive plague will touch you when I strike Egypt.  This is a day you are to commemorate; for the generations to come you shall celebrate it as a festival to the LORD -- a lasting ordinance'" (Exodus 12:6-14).

"When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover, Jesus went up to Jerusalem" (John 2:13).  "Get rid of the old yeast, so that you may be a new unleavened batch -- as you really are.  For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed" (1 Corinthians 5:7).


"But when you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father, who is unseen. Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you"  (
Matthew 6:6).    "When you ask,

you do not receive, because you ask with wrong motives, that you may spend what you get on your pleasures" (James 4:3).

"Very early in the morning, while it was still dark, Jesus got up, left the house and went off to a solitary place, where he prayed" (
Mark 1:35).  "But Jesus often withdrew to lonely places and prayed" (Luke 5:16). 
"Going a little farther, He fell with his face to the ground and prayed, 'My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me.  Yet not as I will, but as You will'" (Matthew 26:39).

"The   prayer   of  a  righteous   person  is  powerful  and  effective"  (

5:16).  "Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer  and  petition,  with  thanksgiving,   present  your  requests  to God" 

(Philippians 4:6).   "But  I  tell  you,  love  your  enemies  and pray for those who persecute you"

(Matthew 5:44).


"In the past God spoke to our forefathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways, but in these last days He has spoken to us through His Son" (Hebrews 1:1).  "The Law and the Prophets were proclaimed until John.  Since that time, the good news of the kingdom of God is being preached" (Luke 16:16).


The Book of Psalms,  in the Old Testament, contains one hundred fifty, sequentially numbered, poems, prayers, and songs referred to generically as "psalms."  Many of the psalms identify commonly known melodies as their intended accompaniments.






"After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb. There was a violent earthquake, for an angel of the Lord came down  from  Heaven and, going to the tomb, rolled back the stone and sat on it.  His appearance was like lightning, and his clothes were white as snow.  The guards were so afraid of him that they shook and became like dead men.  The angel said to the women, 'Do not be afraid, for I know that you are looking for Jesus, who was crucified.  He is not here; He has risen, just as He said. Come and see the place where He lay. Then go quickly and tell His disciples: "He has risen from the dead and is going ahead of you into Galilee. There you will see Him."  Now I have told you.' 

So the women hurried away from the tomb, afraid yet filled with joy, and ran to tell his disciples. Suddenly Jesus met them. 'Greetings,' He said.  They came to Him, clasped His feet and worshiped Him.   Then Jesus said to them, 'Do not be afraid.  Go and tell my brothers to go to Galilee; there they will see me'” (Matthew 28:1-10).



The phrase, "Right hand of God" refers to the position of preeminence reserved for God the Son, our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.  "After the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, He was taken up into Heaven and He sat at the right hand of God" (Mark 16:19).  "But from now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the mighty God” (Luke 22:69).

"Who then is the one who condemns?  No one.  Christ Jesus who died -- more than that, who was raised to life -- is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us" (Romans 8:34). 
"Since, then, you have been raised with Christ, set your hearts on things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God" (Colossians 3:1).


Damascus, the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, is presently the capitol city of Syria.  The road to Damascus was made famous by the conversion experience of the Apostle Paul (formerly Saul) -- a Pharisee zealously committed to persecuting, if not abolishing, the Christian Church.

"Then Paul said:  'I am a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city.  I studied under Gamaliel and was thoroughly trained in the law of our ancestors.  I was just as zealous for God as any of you are today.  I persecuted the followers of this Way to their death, arresting both men and women and throwing them into prison,  as the High Priest and all the Council can themselves testify. I even obtained letters from them to their associates in Damascus, and went there to bring these people as prisoners to Jerusalem to be punished.  About noon as I came near Damascus, suddenly a bright light from Heaven flashed around me.   I fell to the ground and heard a voice say to me, "Saul! Saul! Why do you persecute me?"  "Who are you, Lord?" I asked.   "I  am  Jesus  of  Nazareth,  whom  you  are persecuting"'"  (Acts 22:2-8).





"For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith -- and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God -- not by works, so that no one can boast" (Ephesians 2:8-9).  "For God so loved the world that He sent his one and only Son so that whoever believes him, shall not perish but have eternal life" (John 3:16).



Sanctification is the process of being conformed to Christ's likeness as we are taught and enabled to do the work that God set apart for us to do.

"May God Himself, the God of peace, sanctify you through and through" (1 Thessalonians 5:23).  "To God’s elect . . . who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to be obedient to Jesus Christ" (1 Peter 1:1-2).


"Now may the God of peace . . . equip you with everything good for doing His will, and may He work in us what is pleasing to Him, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory forever and ever.  Amen" (Hebrews 13:20-21).  "For we are God’s handiwork, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do" (Ephesians 2:10).


As an angel named Lucifer, Satan was created with power and authority from God.  However, he sought to raise himself above Almighty God, and was thrown down to the Earth along with the angels who followed him."How you have fallen from Heaven, morning star, son of the dawn!  You have been cast down to the Earth, you who once laid low the nations!  You said in your heart, 'I will ascend to the Heavens; I will raise my throne above the stars of God; I will sit enthroned on the mount of assembly, on the utmost heights of Mount Zaphon, I will ascend above the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High.'  But you are brought down to the realm of the dead, to the depths of the pit" (Isaiah 14:12-15).  "Then war broke out in Heaven.  Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back.  But he was not strong enough, and they lost their place in Heaven.  The great dragon was hurled down -- that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray.  He was hurled to the Earth, and his angels with him" (Revelation 12:7-9).

"Lord, even the demons submit to us in Your Name."  He [Jesus] replied, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from Heaven" (Luke 10:17-18).  "I saw a star that had fallen from the sky to the Earth" (Revelation 9:1).

An enemy of God, Satan knows his future; his due judgment from God.  His desire is to gather followers among human beings, just as he did among the angels, and to lead them to everlasting punishment.  "Be alert and of sober mind.  Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour" (1 Peter 5:8).  "As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient" (Ephesians 2:2).

"For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms"(Ephesians 6:12).  "You belong to your father, the devil, and you want to carry out your father’s desires.  He was a murderer from the beginning, not holding to the truth, for there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks his native language, for he is a liar and the father of lies" (John 8:44).


"And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their proper dwelling, these He has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day" (Jude 1:6).  "For . . . God did not spare angels when they sinned, but sent them to Hell, putting them in chains of darkness to be held for judgment" (2 Peter 2:4).  “Then He will say to those on His left, ‘Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and His angels" (Matthew 25:41).


Sin is a rebellion against God; a prideful departure from His will.  "For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" (Romans 3:23).


“In my vision at night, I looked and there before me was one like a Son of Man, coming with the clouds of Heaven.  He approached the ancient of days and was led into His presence.  He was given authority, glory and sovereign power: all peoples, nations and men of every language worshipped him.  His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away and His kingdom is one that will never be destroyed” (Daniel 7:13-14).  "And He (the Father) has given Him (the Son) authority to judge, because He is the Son of Man” (John 5:26-27).


"I turned around to see the voice that was speaking to me.  And when I turned I saw seven golden lamp stands, and among the lamp stands was someone like a Son of Man, dressed in a robe reaching down to His feet and with a golden sash around his chest" (Revelation 1:12-13).


"When I saw Him, I fell at His feet as though dead.  Then He placed His right hand on me and said: 'Do not be afraid. I am the First and the Last.  I am the Living One; I was dead, and now look, I am alive forever and ever! And I hold the keys of death and Hades" (Revelation 1:17-18).



The Tabernacle was a large tent used as a center of worship by the Israelites.  Constructed per God's exacting instructions (as given to Moses on Mt. Sinai) the Levites (one of the twelve tribes of Israel) put up the Tabernacle each time the  Israelites made camp.  The Tabernacle contained the Ark of the Covenant, as well as other items central to the religious practices of the tribes of Israel.


The Talmud; literally "instruction" or "learning," is a collection of writings that record rabbinic discussions pertaining to Judaism; its law, history, customs, etc.  The Talmud contains two parts, the Mishnah and the Gemara.  The Mishnah is a written collection of Judaism's Oral Law.  The Gemara is a discussion of the Misnah and other writings and ideas related to the Jewish faith. 


The first Jewish Temple was built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem by King Solomon in 957 B.C.  "I intend, therefore, to build a Temple for the Name of the LORD my God, as the LORD told my father David, when he said, 'Your son whom I will put on the throne in your place will build the Temple for my Name'" (1 Kings 5:5).


A replacement for the Tabernacle, the Temple was the central and only place of sacrifice for the Jewish people.  Destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 B.C., the Temple was rebuilt over a period of twenty-three years -- beginning in 538 B.C.


"In the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, in order to fulfill the word of the LORD spoken by Jeremiah, the LORD moved the heart of Cyrus king of Persia to make a proclamation throughout his realm and also to put it in writing:  'This is what Cyrus king of Persia says:  "The LORD, the God of Heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the Earth and He has appointed me to build a Temple for Him at Jerusalem in Judah.  Any of his people among you may go up to Jerusalem in Judah and build the Temple of the LORD, the God of Israel, the God who is in Jerusalem, and may their God be with them" (Ezra 1:1-3).


It was ultimately destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D.  "Some of His disciples were remarking about how the Temple was adorned with beautiful stones and with gifts dedicated to God.  But Jesus said, 'As for what you see here, the time will come when not one stone will be left on another; every one of them will be thrown down'" (Luke 21:5-6).


With the 7th century Muslim conquest of Jerusalem, an Islamic shrine The Dome of the Rock was constructed on the Temple site between 689 and 691 A.D.  A new Jewish Temple is prophesied to be rebuilt on the site prior to history's climax.  The rebuilding of the Temple is essential to the fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy regarding the identity of the anti-christ.

"He  [the anti-christ] will confirm a covenant with many for one ‘seven.’  In the middle of the ‘seven’ he will put an end to sacrifice and offering.  And at the Temple he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him" (Daniel 9:27). 
"So when you see standing in the holy place ‘the abomination that causes desolation,’ spoken of through the prophet Daniel -- let the reader understand -- then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains" (Matthew 24:15-16).


A partial fulfillment of this prophecy took place in the Temple, in 167 B.C., when Antiochus Epiphanies put up an altar to Zeus, and sacrificed a pig.  This notorious act became known as the abomination of  desolation.


The prophecy yet to be fulfilled is the covenant that the anti-christ will make with the people of the Earth for a seven year period.  "In the middle of the 'seven’" years the anti-christ will set up the abomination of desolation, ushering in the terrible and final three and half years of the tribulation.  As with the previous abomination, an idol will be set up for the Earth's inhabitants to worship; at the threat of death.


"Then I saw a second beast, coming out of the Earth. It had two horns like a lamb, but it spoke like a dragon.   It  exercised  all  the  authority   of  the  first  beast  on its  behalf,  and made the Earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, whose fatal wound had been healed.  And it performed great signs, even causing fire to come down from heaven to the Earth in full view of the people.  Because of the signs it was given power to perform on behalf of the first beast, it deceived the inhabitants of the Earth.


It ordered them to set up an image in honor of the beast who was wounded by the sword and yet lived.  The second beast was given power to give breath to the image of the first beast, so that the image could speak and cause all who refused to worship the image to be killed.  It also forced all people, great and small, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hands or on their foreheads, so that they could not buy or sell unless they had the mark, which is the name of the beast or the number of its name" (Revelation 13:11-17).  The future abomination of desolation will leave no doubt in anyone’s mind that the one perpetrating it is the person known as the Antichrist.  


  "You shall have no other gods before me.

  You shall not make for yourself an image in the form of anything in Heaven above or on the Earth beneath or in the waters below.  You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments.

  You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name.

  Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.  Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God.  On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your male or female servant, nor your animals, nor any foreigner residing in your towns.  For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the Earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but He rested on the seventh day.  Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.

5.  Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the LORD your God is giving you.

  You shall not murder.

You shall not commit adultery.

  You shall not steal.

You shall not give false testimony against your

  You shall not covet your
neighbor’s house.  You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his male or female servant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor'" (Exodus 20:3-17).


The Torah; literally "instruction" -- also known as the Pentateuch -- refers to the Five Books of Moses:Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.


"After six days Jesus took with Him Peter, James and John the brother of James, and led them up a high mountain by themselves.  There He was   transfigured before them.  His face shone like the sun,and his clothes became as white as the light.  Just then there appeared before them Moses and Elijah, talking with Jesus.  While He was still speaking, a bright cloud covered them, and a voice from the cloud said, 'This is my Son, whom I love; with Him I am well pleased. Listen to Him!'" (Matthew 17:1-3;4).


Here we have the Law and the Prophets (represented respectively by Moses and Elijah) and God the Father, all affirming the deity of the Lord Jesus Christ.  supporting this remarkable affirmation, God the Son reveals His own "shekinah" glory -- the glory of God's presence -- heretofore hidden by His Human nature.


"Then the cloud covered the Tabernacle of Meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the Tabernacle.  And Moses was not able to enter the Tabernacle of Meeting, because the cloud rested above it, and the glory of the LORD filled the Tabernacle" (Exodus 40:34-35).


The word "Trinity" is used to teach what God has revealed about His nature and His being.  When Christians speak of God, they are speaking of the one God who is revealed in three persons:  The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit.  One Being, yet three Persons; eternally distinct from the other two




"I am He, Before me no God was formed, nor will there be one after me" (Isaiah 43:10). 


"Turn to me and be saved, all you  ends of the Earth; for I am  God, and there is no other" (Isaiah 45:2). 


"See now that I myself am He!   There  is no God besides  me.  I  put  to death and I  bring  to life, I have wounded and I will heal and  none can deliver out  of my hand" (Deuteronomy 32:39).



"Grace and  peace to  you  from  God  our  Father and The Lord Jesus Christ " (1 Corinthians 1:3). 


"You are my Father, my God, the Rock my Savior" (Psalm 89:26).



"But      about     the    Son    He   says,   'Your    throne,   O   God,    will    last   forever   and  ever,  and   righteousness  will  be  the  scepter  of  your  kingdom"  (Hebrews 1:8)


"While we wait for the blessed hope -- the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ" (Titus 2:13).




"You   have lied  to the  Holy Spirit . . . You have  not  lied to   men  but   to   God" (Acts 5:3-4). 


"While they were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, "Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them" (Acts 3:2).




"If I did judge, my decisions are right, because I am not alone.  I stand with the Father, who sent me. In your own Law it is written that the testimony of two men is valid.  I am one who testifies for myself,  my other witness is the Father, who  sent  me" (John 14:26).

"But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything  have  said  to  you"
(John 14:26).

"As soon as Jesus was baptized, He went up out of the water.  At that moment Heaven was opened, and He saw  The Spirit of God  descending like a dove and lighting on Him.  And a voice from Heaven said, 'This is my Son, whom I love; with Him I am well pleased'"
(Matthew 3:16-17).

Finally, Matthew 28:19 records Jesus commending the Trinity to His Disciples as He commissions them to spread the Gospel to the nations of the Earth.  "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name [singular] of The Father and of The Son and of The Holy Spirit" (Matthew 28:19).



"And the teachers of the law who came down from Jerusalem said, 'He is possessed by Beelzebub! By the prince of demons he is driving out demons'" (Mark 3:22).


"'Truly I tell you, people can be forgiven all their sins and every slander they utter, but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; they are guilty of an eternal sin.'  He said this because they were saying, 'He has an impure spirit'" (Mark 3:28-30).



"Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel" (Isaiah 7:14).


"God sent the angel Gabriel to Nazareth, a town in Galilee, to a virgin pledged to be married to a man named Joseph, a descendant of David.  The virgin’s name was Mary.   The angel went to her and said, 'Greetings, you who are highly favored! The Lord is with you.'  Mary was greatly troubled at his words and wondered what kind of greeting this might be.  But the angel said to her, 'Do not be afraid, Mary; you have found favor with God.   You will conceive and give birth to a Son, and you are to call him Jesus.  He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High.  The Lord God will give him the throne of His father David, and He will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever; His kingdom will never end.'  'How will this be,' Mary asked the angel, 'since I am a virgin?'  The angel answered, 'The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the Holy One to be born will be called the Son of God   'I am the Lord’s servant,' Mary answered. “May your word to me be fulfilled'" (Luke 1:26-34; 38). 


"All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 'The virgin will conceive and give birth to a Son, and they will call him Immanuel' (which means 'God with us')" (Matthew 1:22-23).




Worship is an act of reverence, duly expressing thankfulness to God.  "God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in the Spirit and in truth" (John 4:24).




Yahweh is an approximation of the personal name of God; as first given in the Old Testament.  Appearing almost seven thousand times in the Bible, it can be translated from the Hebrew into YHWH (Yod Heh Vav Heh) -- known as the Tetragrammaton. 

Out of reverence for the holiness of God, the name could be written, but never spoken (resulting in the pronunciation being lost).  In deference to the reader, the name "Adoni" (LORD) was supplanted for the YHWH designation.  In our English translations, "LORD," written in small capital letters, represents the Hebrew reading of YHWH.


For  the  Jewish    people,   Yom Kippur (or the Day of Atonement)  is  one  of  the  holiest  days of the year.  Culminating the High Holy Days, Yom Kippur is traditionally observed with a twenty-five hour period of fasting, prayers of repentance, and synagogue services.



A  zealot  was  a  member  of  a  resistance  group   seeking  to  overthrow  Roman  rule in first century Judea.


Zion is a Hebrew word most often referring to Jerusalem.




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